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Episode 19: The Duty to Remember and The Right to Know: How Newk and Evelyn Grubb built a Community of Memory (October 15, 2020)

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The Duty to Remember and The Right to Know: How Newk and Evelyn Grubb built a Community of Memory

This show continues our series connecting the Duty to Remember and the Ethics of Memory to the issue of Prisoners of War/Missing in Action (POW/MIA). We begin this show with a photo of Wilmer Newlin “Newk” Grubb, an American Pilot who was shot down in North Vietnam in 1966 and died shortly after becoming a POW. Clearly alive in the photo (taken in 1966), and being tended to by a nurse, the photo was promoted by the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (DRV), and published in U.S. papers. Eventually, Newk’s wife Evelyn learned of the photo, who until that time, was uncertain of his fate. Upon seeing the photo, Evelyn’s life – and that of her 4 sons – was changed forever. Learn about this powerful story as Kevyn Settle, director and producer of a relevant documentary film called “Fruits of Peace”, and Jeff Grubb, the eldest one son of Newk and Evelyn Grubb, discuss the events surrounding the photo both in Vietnam and in the United States.
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Episode 18: The Duty to Remember: Journeys of Reconciliation and The Fruits of Peace (October 8, 2020)

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The Duty to Remember: Journeys of Reconciliation and The Fruits of Peace

This show continues our series devoted connecting the Duty to Remember and the Ethics of Memory to the issue of Prisoners of War/Missing in Action (POW/MIA). Joining us is the talented team behind "Fruits of Peace" a 2019 documentary film that focuses on the reconciliatory journey of Du Pham, a Vietnamese National, who fought for the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (North Vietnam) during the Vietnam War. Du belongs to the celebrated anti-aircraft unit "C4" which, as its first victory, shot down American Pilot Wilmer Newlin "Newk" Grubb in 1966. Surviving the attack on his plane, Newk was taken to a local village and fed, and then presumably transported to a camp holding other Prisoners of War. Newk died in captivity shortly thereafter. Du just assumed that Newk had survived and was released when the other Prisoners of War were returned to the United States during Operation Homecoming in 1973. Over 40 years later, in 2010, Du journeyed to the U.S. in part to visit his brother Mai (who fought for the South) and to find Newk. Join us to learn about the incredible unfolding of events triggered by Du's courageous decision to extend his hand to his former "enemy", as told in "Fruits of Peace." Joining us are Kevyn Settle (Producer, Director), Michael Chiplock (Executive Producer) and Shirine Hossaini (Associate Producer) of this moving film that raises profound and poignant questions about the Duty to Remember, the Ethics of Memory and how journeys of reconciliation help to harvest the fruits of peace.
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Episode 17: The Duty to Remember: Considering Prisoners of War and The Missing in Action (POW/MIA) as a Case Study in the Ethics of Memory (September 24, 2020)

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The Duty to Remember: Considering Prisoners of War and The Missing in Action (POW/MIA) as a Case Study in the Ethics of Memory

In his book “The Ethics of Memory”(Harvard 2004) philosopher Avishai Margalit argues that although we have a duty to remember others, the nature of those duties shifts depending on our specific relationship to “the other”. We have a duty to remember friends and family, but that duty is weaker and even non-existent if the other is a stranger. In today’s show, we use the issue of Prisoners of War/Missing in Action (POW/MIA) to reflect on Margalit’s theory and other moral questions connected to our duties to the Missing, to the dead, and to their families. The familiar POW/MIA flag (created during the Vietnam War) states “You are Not Forgotten,” betokening a moral duty to remember. September 18, 2020 was National POW/MIA Recognition Day and this show is the first in a series in which we engage in an extended discussion of Prisoners of War/Missing in Action (POW/MIA) and their families. Joining us is documentary filmmaker Keyvn Settle who has done extensive research on the POW/MIA issue and has recently made a moving film, Fruits of Peace, that includes the story of how the Vietnam War helped shape our Duty to Remember.
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Episode 16: Justice, Impartiality and Peace: From Andrew Carnegie to John Lewis (September 10, 2020)

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Justice, Impartiality and Peace: From Andrew Carnegie to John Lewis

This show continues our discussion on 9/03, which explored the connections amongst peace, justice and the Golden Rule. We continue discussing the relationship amongst these concepts, focusing today on the connection between impartiality and justice - a connection which Andrew Carnegie observed in 1907. According to Carnegie, justice “forbids men to be judges when they are parties to the issue”. Yet, Immanuel Kant seems to posit existence of an inescapable “inner judge” which can, impartially, judge the extent to which one is complying with the moral law. In today’s show we explore these apparent contradictory claims and the relationship amongst justice, impartiality and peace, using the remarks of John Lewis (1940-2020) to guide us in this dialogue.
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Episode 15: From the Golden Rule to The Freedom Rides: Reflecting on Peace and Justice (September 2, 2020)

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From the Golden Rule to The Freedom Rides: Reflecting on Peace and Justice

This show continues our discussion on 8/27, which focused on the role of visual objects in the Peace through Law movement. Discussing both the peace flag (created in 1897) and the Peace Palace, which opened in 1913, we noted how both play important roles in the "education piece" of the Peace through Law movement. These symbols not only provide a way of "entering the forest" of the history of this movement, but also help the individual to organize his or her "inner world" so that one acts in accordance with an "inner law" known as Golden Rule. Described as "the law and the prophets" in the Book of Matthew, we explore the connection between the Golden Rule, Peace and “Justice.” What is the relationship between peace and justice? How, if at all, is "justice" connected to the Golden Rule? August 28, we noted, is both the anniversary of Martin Luther King's "I Have a Dream" speech (in 1963) and the opening of the Peace Palace (in 1913), and thus marks an important moment in peace history. We devote this show to exploring the connections amongst the Peace through Law Movement, the Golden Rule and the nature of Justice. We note that this is the first year that we have passed through August 28, without Congressman John Lewis, a fierce practitioner of the philosophy of non-violence and the last survivor of the original "big 6" behind the March on Washington. And who, in 1961, sat next to Al Bigelow (pictured here with his sailboat "The Golden Rule") on the "Freedom Ride 1961" which tested whether Southern states were complying with the desegregation laws.
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Episode 14: Organizing for Memory, Visualizing Peace, Reflecting on Justice (August 27, 2020)

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Organizing for Memory, Visualizing Peace, Reflecting on Justice

This show marks two distinct but linked moments in peace history connected to the work of visualizing and concretizing the peace ideal that was(is) an important part of the “Peace through Law” Movement. August 27 marks the adoption of the International Flag of Peace by the Universal Peace Union (in 1897); it also marks the eve of the opening of the Peace Palace in The Hague (on August 28, 1913). In this show, we discuss the deeper roots of these moments that are part of the “visual history” of the Peace through Law Movement, and how both the Peace Flag and the Peace Palace play important roles in “organizing the world”, and the individual, for peace. We also discuss the mysterious linkages amongst the Peace through Law Movement, the women’s suffrage movement and the U.S. civil rights movement.
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Episode 13: Re-Organize the World ! Peace Through Law in the Nuclear Age (August 13, 2020)

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Re-Organize the World !: Peace Through Law in the Nuclear Age

This show continues our discussion of 8/6/2020, which marked the 75th anniversary of the bombing of Hiroshima. We pick up the thread of conversation about “organizing the world” for peace in the nuclear age through international institutions such as the International Court of Justice and the recent case brought by the Marshall Islands which sought to enforce provisions of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty. We discuss the philosophical ideas and practices behind other proposed paths to “organize the world” for peace in the nuclear age such as the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons and a new U.S. initiative known as “CEND” (“Creating the Environment for Nuclear Disarmament) which charts a different course.
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Episode 12: A Revolution of Thought: Organizing the World for Peace in the Nuclear Age (August 6, 2020)

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A Revolution of Thought: Organizing the World for Peace in the Nuclear Age

The dropping of atomic bombs by the U.S. on Japan in 1945 caused Albert Einstein to exhort human beings to develop “a new manner of thinking” and with philosopher Bertrand Russell, Einstein and other scientists urged us to think in a new way” and “remember humanity, forget the rest.” In like manner, Shinzo Hamai, the first publicly elected mayor of Hiroshima following the bombing called for a “revolution of thought” in his Mayorial Peace Declaration of 1947. In today’s show, which commemorates the 75th anniversary of the bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, we reflect on some of the “thinking” connected to the nuclear issue, and how we have tried to “organize the world” for peace - focusing on “legal approaches” to nuclear disarmament such as using the International Court of Justice which opined on the nuclear issue in 1996 and 2014.
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Episode 11: Exiting the Forest: Philosophical Reflections on the Korean War on the 67th Anniversary of its Armistice (July 27, 2020)

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Exiting the Forest: Philosophical Reflections on the Korean War on the 67th Anniversary of its Armistice

In today’s show, we reflect on our series on the Korean War by focusing the philosophical dimensions that most resonated with us during this series. From the epistemological and psychological dimensions of the war involved in the PsyWar campaign and the ideological conflict on the Korean Peninsula, to reframing the war in a way that recognizes the thread of effort of women working for peace on the Korean Peninsula (such as done by Christine Ahn and her organization Women Cross DMZ), we reflect on various themes/ideas covered in our series on this 67th anniversary of the Armistice that paused, but has not ended, the Korean War. This show is the seventh and final show in a series focused on looking at the Korean War – we “entered the forest” of this war by beginning with Bertha von Suttner’s 1912 essay, The Barbarization of the Sky, and we have focused on how the Sky was used in the Korean war: from the aerial bombardment with napalm to leaflet filled propaganda bombs used in the PsyWar campaign. We “exit the forest” today by reflecting on what we have learned on this 67th anniversary of the Armistice that paused, but has not ended, the Korean War.
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Episode 10: Dreaming of Peace in Korea: A Conversation with Christine Ahn, Founder of Women Cross DMZ (July 23, 2020)

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Dreaming of Peace in Korea: A Conversation with Christine Ahn, founder of Women Cross DMZ

Joining us to discuss her work towards peace on the Korean Peninsula - and ending the Korean War - is activist-scholar-teacher Christine Ahn, founder of Women Cross DMZ, a global movement of women mobilizing for peace on the Korean Peninsula. This show is the sixth show in a series focused on looking at the Korean War – we have used Bertha von Suttner’s 1912 essay, The Barbarization of the Sky, as a focal point for this discussion - and we have focused on how the the Sky was used in that war. From the aerial bombardment with napalm to leaflet filled propaganda bombs used in the PsyWar campaign, we have discussed how the US Airforce used the Korean Sky. For this show, we turn to another thread connected to Bertha von Suttner’s work, the role of women in securing peace. This work began well over 100 years ago when Bertha and other women organized to support the creation of non-violent dispute mechanisms such as the Permanent Court of Arbitration. Today, this work continues as a group of international women organized by Christine Ahn are laboring to end the Korean War. An important moment of this work occurred 5 years ago in 2015, when Christine’s organization, WomenCross DMZ, crossed the DMZ - the most heavily fortified border in the world - in attempt to restart peace talks and to bring awareness to issues on the Korean Peninsula through people to people diplomacy. Special guest Christine Ahn joins us today to discuss this moment and her subsequent work towards peace in Korea.
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Episode 9: Leaflet Bombs and Flying Loudspeakers: The Barbarization of the Sky and Psychological Warfare during the Korean War (July 16, 2020)

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Leaflet Bombs and Flying Loudspeakers: The Barbarization of the Sky and Psychological Warfare During the Korean War
This show is the fifth show in a series focused on looking at the Korean War by looking at how the Sky was used in that war. We have discussed strafing and aerial bombardment by the USAF in the North and South. But also dropped from planes were millions of pieces of paper carried in “leaflet bombs”. Airplanes were also outfitted with loudspeakers. These “messages” carried by airplanes were part of the Psychological Warfare (PsyWar) campaign during the Korean War, the topic of today’s show. In an article titled ‘Air Force Psychological Warfare in Korea’, the author describes the broadest intentions of psychological warfare as “the bolstering of friendly morale and the destruction of enemy moral.” This includes not only “conventional" PsyWar (leaflets and loudspeakers), but also the Airforce itself. Joining us to discuss this topic special guest SGM Herb Friedman, author of numerous articles on psywar during the Korean War found at psywarrior.com
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Episode 8: Don't call them 'villages,' they are 'military targets': The Korean War as a case study on ignorance, forgetfulness and the politics of truth (July 9, 2020)

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Don’t call them ‘villages’, they are ‘military targets’: The Korean War as a Case Study on Ignorance, Forgetfulness and the Politics of Truth (Master Class #3 with Charles Hanley)

In this 4th installment of our series commemorating the 70th anniversary of the Korean War, we explore the philosophical dimensions of the conflict. "Epistemology" is the branch of philosophy dealing with the nature of Knowledge. It asks, 'what are the conditions of Knowledge?' and 'how do we know when we know something?' The description of the Korean War as a "Forgotten War", and the fact that specific stories connected to the war have been deliberately "hidden" from public consciousness, are invitations to more deeply examine the epistemology of this important conflict. In this show, we explore the lessons that the Korean War teaches us about both truth and ignorance. Special guest Charles Hanley, Pulitzer Prize winning investigative journalist and author of the forthcoming book Ghost Flames (Public Affairs, 2000), joins us.
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Episode 7: The Barbarization of The Sky and the Bombing of North Korea during the Korean War: Master Class #2 with Charles Hanley (July 2, 2020)

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The Barbarization of The Sky and the Bombing of North Korea during the Korean War: Master Class #2 with Charles Hanley

In this third installment of our series commemorating the 70th anniversary of the Korean War, Pulitzer Prize winning author and former AP investigative journalist Charles Hanley joins us as a special guest as we focus on the aerial bombardment of North Korea during the Korean War. In today’s show, we discuss the use of US/UN airpower during the Korean War, and its psychological and material impact to the ordinary person in North Korea. Largely unknown by the average American is the fact that the US airforce bombed North Korea in such a way as to cause unspeakable devastation to ordinary people in North Korea. Entire cities were destroyed as were irrigation dams that were crucial to the food supply. According to one report, not a single house in Pyonyang still possessed both four walls and a roof after the bombing campaign. In today’s show, we discuss this hidden nightmare from the forgotten war.
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Episode 6: The Korean War and The Barbarization of The Sky: A Master Class with Charles Hanley (June 25, 2020)

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The Korean War & The Barbarization of the Sky: A Master Class with Charles Hanley

In 2000, Charles Hanley, with his team of Associated Press investigative reporters (Sang Hun Choe and Martha Mendoza), won the Pulitzer Prize for investigative reporting for uncovering a hidden nightmare in a war known in America as the "Forgotten War". Hanley and his colleagues revealed, with extensive documentation, how the United States' policy during the Korean War included the indiscriminate targeting of Korean civilians through strafing (attacking with low flying aircraft). Their jointly authored book, "The Bridge at No Gun Ri" was published in 2001. Hanley's new book on the Korean War, "Ghost Flames", will be released in August 2020. In this special conversation that marks the 70th anniversary of the Korean War, Charles Hanley joins us as a special guest as we continue to "enter the forest" of the Korean War by looking at the barbarous acts committed from the sky - both in South Korea, and in North Korea - by the U.S. airforce. This conversation is the second installment of a series devoted to a narrative of the Korean War - which technically has not ended - by beginning with Bertha von Suttner's 1912 essay "The Barbarization of the Sky".
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Episode 5: Entering the Forest of the Korean War: The Barbarization of the Sky (June 19, 2020)

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Entering the Forest of the Forgotten War: The Barbarization of the Sky
This podcast begins a mini-series focused on the Korean War, known in the U.S. as "The Forgotten War." We begin the narrative (enter the forest) of this complex story through the Sky, which, as will be discussed in future episodes, played a crucial role in the Korean War. The Fifth Airforce of the then called "Far East Air Force" (currently called "Pacific Air Force") of the U.S. waged both conventional war through weapons (including chemical weapons), as well as Psychological Warfare (PsyOps) through the dropping of propaganda leaflets, actions whose consequences are well felt today. But to understand where we are today, we enter the forest in 1912, when Bertha von Suttner (1843-1914) titled her final pacifist essay “The Barbarization of the Sky” warning against the numerous horrors that would result if the sky became a theater of war.
* 2020 marks the 70th anniversary of the beginning of the war, and though the years of this war are customarily given as 1951-1953, the war has technically not ended (an armistice agreement was reached in 1953). In June 2020 hostilities between the two Koreas have intensified, just two years after the historic Panmujeom summit between President Moon Jae-In (of the Republic of Korea [South Korea])) and Kim Jung-Eun (of the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea [North Korea])). This show begins to weave a thread that connects the argument of Suttner's 1912 essay with the current hostilities between the 2 Koreas which have arisen out of the Korean War.
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Episode 4: An Appeal to The World: National Justices, International Dimensions (June 12, 2020)

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An Appeal to the World: National Injustices, International Dimensions

As governments in a subcommittee of the United Nations’ General Assembly were beginning to debate the content for what was to become The Universal Declaration of Human Rights, in 1947, the NAACP submitted a memorial to the UN, titled “An Appeal to the World: A Statement on the Denial of Human Rights to Minorities in the Case of Citizens of Negro Descent in the United States of America and an Appeal to the United Nations for Redress”. Supervised by W.E.B. Dubois, the “Appeal" traces a thread of U.S. legal history from 1787 to 1947 that evidences the systematic discrimination against, to use the Appeal’s language, “American Negroes.” In 2016, CMU's Center for International Ethics focused its annual commemoration of Global Ethics Day on the Appeal, and also discussed how the the parents of Michael Brown (who was killed in Ferguson, MO in 2014) were trying to use UN Human Rights Machinery in Geneva, Switzerland to seek justice. This episode contains the audio of that 2016 discussion. We hope to introduce the audience to the 1947 Appeal by focusing on select passages, but also to have the listener think about the international dimensions of domestic injustices. W.E.B. Dubois wrote “[the treatment of the American Negro] is not merely an internal question of the United States. It is a basic problem of humanity... and therefore demands the attention of “the People’s of the World.” Our aim is to have the listener think hard about how “internal questions” should inform “universal values” such as human dignity and human rights, and also to refresh the listener’s memory regarding the 2016 tragedy which laid the groundwork for the international response in 2020 to the murder of George Floyd.
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Episode 3: Plot, Plan, Strategize, Organize and Mobilize! The Solidarity of Human Interests and International Organization (June 4, 2020)

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Plot, Plan, Strategize, Organize and Mobilize! The Solidarity of Human Interests and International Organization

In his recent Press Conference with the Mayor of Atlanta, activist, rapper and teacher Michael Render (aka “Killer Mike”) urged people to “plot, plan, strategize, organize and mobilize”. Referencing the long battle towards equality assisted by organizations such as the YMCA (Young Men’s Christian Association) and the SCLC (Southern Christian Leadership Conference), Teacher Mike urged us to place ourselves in this non-violent organizational line. In this show, we draw attention to an overlooked part of the history of organization towards peace and justice: The International Council of Women (ICW). First meeting in 1888 to celebrate the 40th anniversary of Seneca Falls, the “solidarity of human interests” brought together men and women such as Frederick Douglass (1818-1895), Susan B. Anthony (1820-1906) and Clara Barton (1821-1912) . The International Council of Women laid the groundwork for women’s international support of the Peace through Law movement, work which still continues to this day. Access supporting resources our Show Resources page at:
http://www.virtuesofpeace.com/resources
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Episode 2: Organize the World! An Idea Central to the Peace through Law Movement (May 29, 2020)

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Organize the World!: An Idea Central to the Peace through Law Movement

One of the catchphrases of the 19th Century Peace Movement (also known as the Peace through Law Movement) was "Organize the World!". In this show, we focus on that phrase, discussing the organization that peace activists called for, which included the creation of laws, of new courts, the education both of legal professionals and the public, and the equality of men and women (among other things). Our objective in this show is to have the listener appreciate the different components of organizing the world towards peace. Grounding this discussion is an essay by Edwin D. Mead, originally published in 1898, called "Organize the World!". Access that on our show resources page at:
http://www.virtuesofpeace.com/resources
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Episode 1: Organizing for Memory, Organizing for Peace (May 18, 2020)

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Organizing for Memory, Organizing for Peace: A Commemoration of Peace Day

Prior to the U.S. entry into World War I (on April 6, 1917), ordinary citizens all over the world - many of them women - agitated to pressure states to create a court that allowed for the non-violent settlement of disputes. This court, The Permanent Court of Arbitration, was the result of the historic 1899 Hague Peace Conference that opened on May 18, 1899. The creation of this court was so monumental that May 18 was celebrated, mainly in the U.S. as "Peace Day". The purpose of Peace Day? to provide a means to educate the public about the new court, and the New World Order, one that replaced the "law of force" with the "force of law". With the U.S. entry into WW1, Peace Day began to fade from the public's memory, as did the important "Peace Through Law" movement. In this show, we discuss this forgotten history and some of the persons behind it, why they should be remembered and known, and how to implement their lesson and example today.
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